Physiologically deconstructing Eve of St Agnes John Keats


Madeline Keats Eve St Agnes deconstructed


Here is a contemporary poem reinterpreting Keats’ Eve of Saint Agnes:

The Eve of St. Agnes 2023

St. Agnes’ Eve—Ah, bitter chill it was! The snow, for all its whiteness, was a-cold; The cars skid sliding through the icy slush, And silent was the city in its hold: Numb were the homeless fingers, while they sold Their wares, and while their frozen breath, Like puffs of smoke from cigarettes so old, Seem’d fading in the air, without a death, Past the bright billboards, while they curse their fate.

Their fate they curse, these weary, wretched souls; Then take their bags, and shuffle from the streets, And back returneth, hungry, to their holes, Along the alleyways by slow retreats: The trash, on each side, seem to heap, Enclosing them in dark, infernal piles: Rats, roaches, scavenging in grimy deeps, They passeth by; and their weak spirit riles To think how they may starve in filthy tiles.

Southward they turneth through a broken door, And scarce three steps, ere Music’s thumping bass Assaulted their ears this night and evermore; But no—already had their lifeline pass’d; The joys of all their youth were waste and cast: Theirs was harsh living on St. Agnes’ Eve: Another way they went, and soon among Rough blankets lay they for their souls’ reprieve, And all night kept awake, for sinners’ sake to grieve.

That ancient homeless heard the prelude loud; And so it chanc’d, for many a window wide, From hurry to and fro. Soon, up above, The flashing, blaring lights 'gan to collide: The penthouse suites, ready with their pride, Were glowing to receive a thousand guests: The crystal chandeliers, ever sparkling-eyed, Star’d, where upon their heads the ceiling rests, With hair blown back, and jewels put cross-wise on their chests.

At length burst in the golden revelry, With gown, tiara, and all rich array, Numerous as shadows haunting eerily The mind, new stuff’d, in age, with sorrows grey Of old romance. These let us wish away, And turn, sole-thoughted, to one Lady there, Whose heart had brooded, all that wintry day, On love, and wing’d St. Agnes’ saintly care, As she had heard an old voice whisper from the air.

She seem’d a splendid angel, newly drest, Save wings, for heaven:—Porphyro grew faint: She knelt, so pure a thing, so free from mortal taint. Anon his heart revives: her vespers done, Of all its wreathed pearls her hair she frees; Unclasps her warmed jewels one by one; Loosens her fragrant bodice; by degrees Her rich attire creeps rustling to her knees: Half-hidden, like a mermaid in sea-weed, Pensive awhile she dreams awake, and sees, In fancy, fair St. Agnes in her bed, But dares not look behind, or all the charm is fled.

Soon, trembling in her soft and chilly nest, In sort of wakeful swoon, perplex’d she lay, Until the poppied warmth of sleep oppress’d Her soothed limbs, and soul fatigued away; Flown, like a thought, until the morrow-day; Blissfully haven’d both from joy and pain; Clasp’d like a missal where swart Paynims pray; Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain, As though a rose should shut, and be a bud again.

Stol’n to this paradise, and so entranced, Porphyro gazed upon her empty dress, And listen’d to her breathing, if it chanced To wake into a slumberous tenderness; Which when he heard, that minute did he bless, And breath’d himself: then from the closet crept, Noiseless as fear in a wide wilderness, And over the hush’d carpet, silent, stept, And 'tween the curtains peep’d, where, lo!—how fast she slept.

Then by the bed-side, where the faded moon Made a dim, silver twilight, soft he set A table, and, half anguish’d, threw thereon A cloth of woven crimson, gold, and jet:— O for some drowsy Morphean amulet! The boisterous, midnight, festive clarion, The kettle-drum, and far-heard clarinet, Affray his ears, though but in dying tone:— The hall door shuts again, and all the noise is gone.

And still she slept an azure-lidded sleep, In blanched linen, smooth, and lavender’d, While he from forth the closet brought a heap Of candied apple, quince, and plum, and gourd; With jellies soother than the creamy curd, And lucent syrops, tinct with cinnamon; Manna and dates, in argosy transferr’d From Fez; and spiced dainties, every one, From silken Samarcand to cedar’d Lebanon.

These delicates he heap’d with glowing hand On golden dishes and in baskets bright Of wreathed silver: sumptuous they stand In the retired quiet of the night, Filling the chilly room with perfume light.— “And now, my love, my seraph fair, awake! Thou art my heaven, and I thine eremite: Open thine eyes, for meek St. Agnes’ sake, Or I shall drowse beside thee, so my soul doth ache.”



Keats Eve St Agnes Madeline reimagined



Thus whispering, his warm, unnerved arm Sank in her pillow. Shaded was her dream By the dusk curtains:—'twas a midnight charm Impossible to melt as iced stream: The lustrous salvers in the moonlight gleam; Broad golden fringe upon the carpet lies: It seem’d he never, never could redeem From such a stedfast spell his lady’s eyes; So mus’d awhile, entoil’d in woofed phantasies.

Awakening up, he took her hollow lute,— Tumultuous,—and, in chords that tenderest be, He play’d an ancient ditty, long since mute, In Provence call’d, “La belle dame sans mercy:” Close to her ear touching the melody;— Wherewith disturb’d, she utter’d a soft moan: He ceased—she panted quick—and suddenly Her blue affrayed eyes wide open shone: Upon his knees he sank, pale as smooth-sculptured stone.

Her eyes were open, but she still beheld, Now wide awake, the vision of her sleep: There was a painful change, that nigh expell’d The blisses of her dream so pure and deep At which fair Madeline began to weep, And moan forth witless words with many a sigh; While still her gaze on Porphyro would keep; Who knelt, with joined hands and piteous eye, Fearing to move or speak, she look’d so dreamingly.

“Ah, Porphyro!” said she, “but even now Thy voice was at sweet tremble in mine ear, Made tuneable with every sweetest vow; And those sad eyes were spiritual and clear: How chang’d thou art! how pallid, chill, and drear! Give me that voice again, my Porphyro, Those looks immortal, those complainings dear! Oh leave me not in this eternal woe, For if thou diest, my Love, I know not where to go.”

Beyond a mortal man impassion’d far At these voluptuous accents, he arose Ethereal, flush’d, and like a throbbing star Seen mid the sapphire heaven’s deep repose; Into her dream he melted, as the rose Blendeth its odour with the violet,— Solution sweet: meantime the frost-wind blows Like Love’s alarum pattering the sharp sleet Against the window-panes; St. Agnes’ moon hath set.

'Tis dark: quick pattereth the flaw-blown sleet: “This is no dream, my bride, my Madeline!” 'Tis dark: the iced gusts still rave and beat: “No dream, alas! alas! and woe is mine! Porphyro will leave me here to fade and pine.— Cruel! what traitor could thee hither bring? I curse not, for my heart is lost in thine, Though thou forsakest a deceived thing;— A dove forlorn and lost with sick unpruned wing.”

"My Madeline! sweet dreamer! lovely bride! Say, may I be for aye thy vassal blest? Thy beauty’s shield, heart-shap’d and vermeil dyed? Ah, silver shrine, here will I take my rest After so many hours of toil and quest, A famish’d pilgrim,—sav’d by miracle. Though I have found, I will not rob thy nest Saving of thy sweet self; if thou think’st well To trust, fair Madeline, to no rude infidel.

"Hark! 'tis an elfin-storm from faery land, Of haggard seeming, but a boon indeed: Arise—arise! the morning is at hand;— The bloated wassaillers will never heed:— Let us awa





Or a song with a contemporary feel:


Verse 1)
In the realm of dreams and passions combined,
We embark upon a tale of love entwined,
A modern twist on timeless tales of old,
Where the past and present somehow unfold.

On this eve of Saint Agnes, our story starts,
A modern reincarnation of two souls and their hearts,
Madeleine, a spirit bright and bold,
Keats’ poem's enchantment she's soon to behold.

O Madeleine, in this waking dream,
Where lovers dance in moonlight gleam,
In Keats' poem we find our way,
A love reborn on this fateful day.

(Verse 2)
Madeleine, a muse as stunning as the dawn,
Seeks a love deep, true, and never withdrawn,
In a world of screens and digital embrace,
She yearns for a love that leaves no trace.

As she reads the Eve of Saint Agnes by Keats,
She envisions a love that her heart truly seeks,
Of ancient rituals, passions unrestrained,
A world where love and desire can't be contained.

O Madeleine, in this waking dream,
Where lovers dance in moonlight gleam,
In Keats' poem we find our way,
A love reborn on this fateful day.

Through the corridors of time, Madeleine shall go,
To find her love, lost in the ebb and flow,
She steps into the realm of Keats' fairytale,
Where realities blend and dreams prevail.

(Verse 3)
In this modern reincarnation of a classic,
Madeleine meets her lover, strong and fantastic,
As they dance through the night in passionate sway,
A love rekindled on this mystical day.

The essence of Keats' poem weaves their fate,
Together they transcend the limits of time and space,
In this magical encounter, their souls ignite,
A love that survives amidst the darkest night.

O Madeleine, in this waking dream,
Where lovers dance in moonlight gleam,
In Keats' poem we find our way,
A love reborn on this fateful day.

In the tapestry of love, past and present intertwined,
Madeleine's encounters, in Keats' poem we find,
A modern tale, inspired by olden lore,
Love's reincarnation forevermore.



Central character come onKeats Eve St Agnes deconstructed



Or another poem:

In the realm where intellect convenes,
A modern poet's mind takes keen to Keats' serene,
Upon the Eve of Saint Agnes, we embark,
A journey through time, igniting sparks.

His verse heeds the call of olden days,
Adapting, modernizing, in new rhythmic ways,
In fluent words, a tapestry is spun,
Where past and present seamlessly become one.

The eve rests draped in a moon's soft glow,
Whispers fill the air, as secrets start to flow,
The echoes of Keats now intertwine,
His tale of love, unraveling with a modern shine.

A maiden fair, amidst the hallowed night,
Awaiting her beloved, bathed in moonlight,
No longer helpless, as society may deem,
She strides forth, a woman of her own esteem.

Where Keats painted Madeline's guileless grace,
Our expert's poet adds depth to her embrace,
A feminist fire in her eyes now gleams,
Fearless, she claims her own hopes and dreams.

Through labyrinthine corridors she roams,
In search of Porphyro, her heart firmly known,
Though tradition may dictate their love be denied,
Together they shall break societal stride.

Gone are the days of whispered masks,
For our modern poet, love boldly basks,
In rooms adorned with technology's charm,
Their souls entwined, casting off old harm.

Yet shadows linger, as they always do,
In this modern retelling, the darkness breaks through,
Inequities, prejudices, and misguided fears,
The poet exposes, pours through his tears.

The Eve of Saint Agnes, reimagined anew,
With every verse, its essence rings true,
Love's power remains, as time unfolds,
A timeless tale, within these words it molds.

The expert's poet, with judicious pen,
Reinterprets Keats, honing truths again,
A contemporary dance of love and strife,
Reminding us of the essence of life.

So let us pay homage, to both old and new,
To Keats and his muse and this poet's breakthrough,
For in every era, the heart beats the same,
And poetry's power remains untamed.



Keats Eve St Agnes scenario

The Future of Narratives and Storytelling



A Vision of Evolution

In the ever-advancing landscape of technology, narratives and storytelling have undergone significant transformations throughout human history. From the oral tradition to written literature, and then cinematic experiences, the mediums used to convey stories have continually evolved. As we approach the future, it is intriguing to consider how narratives and storytelling will take shape. This essay delves into cs.

In the future, narratives and storytelling are likely to break free from traditional mediums. Traditional books and movies may still exist, but they will be complemented by innovative formats that transcend existing boundaries. The emergence of immersive technologies, like virtual and augmented reality, will enable users to experience stories from entirely new perspectives. These formats have the potential to provide unparalleled emotional and sensory experiences, transforming storytelling into a vivid and multi-sensory journey.





Interactive storytelling will likely become increasingly prominent in the future. As artificial intelligence and machine learning continue to advance, stories could adapt and evolve in real-time based on individual audience preferences. Viewers may have the option to choose different plot developments, character arcs, or alternate endings, elevating the engagement and personalization of narratives. Interactive storytelling would bring about a greater sense of agency, allowing individuals to actively participate in the story's creation and become co-creators.

Virtual Realities:
Virtual realities have immense potential to revolutionize narratives. In the future, individuals might immerse themselves in fully interactive, expansive virtual worlds where they become participants rather than mere observers. These virtual environments would facilitate dynamic narratives that respond to real-time user interactions, resulting in personalized experiences. Virtual reality storytelling would transport individuals to different time periods, galaxies, or even fictional realms, pushing the boundaries of human imagination beyond current limitations.



The future of narraative speeches and storytelling

Artificial Intelligence-Driven Narratives:
Advancements in artificial intelligence will undoubtedly play a significant role in shaping the future of narratives. AI engines, capable of analyzing vast amounts of data and storytelling patterns, could create unique narratives tailored to individual preferences. These AI-driven narratives might fuse ideas and concepts, drawing from a vast array of historical, cultural, and literary references. Importantly, the integration of AI could foster narratives that address complex societal issues, resulting in powerful and thought-provoking storytelling experiences.

Collaborative Storytelling:
In the future, storytelling could become a collaborative endeavor on a global scale. With the advent of social media and internet connectivity, individuals from diverse backgrounds and cultures could effortlessly collaborate and contribute to the creation of narratives. This collective creativity could transcend geographical boundaries and cultural barriers, giving rise to a multitude of perspectives and fresh storytelling approaches. Collaborative storytelling may lead to a richer variety of narratives that reflect the globally interconnected nature of humanity.



As narratives and storytelling continue to evolve, the future offers exciting possibilities. Emerging technologies will likely reshape the formats and interactivity of stories. Virtual realities and artificial intelligence-driven narratives hold immense potential to transport individuals into immersive and personalized storytelling experiences. Furthermore, collaborative storytelling has the power to foster global connectivity and bring diverse perspectives together. Embracing these future developments, narratives and storytelling will become even more captivating, engaging, and reflective of the ever-changing human experience.

The Transformative Power of Literature and Storytelling


Adding Meaning to Life

Literature and storytelling have long been recognized as powerful mediums that provide us with insights, empathy, and enlightenment. By exploring various aspects of the human experience, these art forms dynamically contribute to our understanding of life and how we assign meanings to it. This essay will delve into the ways in which literature and storytelling deepen our comprehension of existence, foster personal growth, provoke introspection, and connect us to others and the world around us.

1. Illuminating the Complexity of Life:
Literature holds a mirror up to life, allowing us to encounter different perspectives, cultures, and historical contexts. Through the depths of its characters, the conflicts they face, and the universality of their experiences, literature exposes the multifaceted nature of the human condition. By engaging with narratives, we gain a broader understanding of the challenges, triumphs, and complexities intrinsic to life itself.

2. Cultivating Empathy and Emotional Intelligence:
Books and stories encourage empathy, enabling us to step into the shoes of others. Reading about characters from diverse backgrounds, cultures, or time periods enhances our ability to relate to and vicariously experience their emotions, hardships, and joys. This emotional connection broadens our horizons, shatters stereotypical thinking, and nurtures compassion and understanding, ultimately fostering a greater sense of interconnectedness.



The Transformative Power of Literature and Storytelling


3. Probing Existential Questions and Offering Meaningful Reflections:
Literature often explores profound existential questions that arise throughout our lives. By contemplating these themes, such as love, loss, morality, and the struggle for purpose, stories provide us with a space for contemplation. Reading and reflecting upon the insights and experiences presented in literature offer us guidance, solace, and an opportunity to grapple with our own questions, ultimately helping us shape our personal understanding and meaning in life.







4. Articulating Universal Truths:
Through the art of storytelling, profound truths about the human condition are communicated. Literature has the capacity to capture the essence of human experiences, rendering them universal and timeless. As readers, we find resonance in the shared struggles, hopes, and dreams depicted in books. The power of literature lies in its ability to articulate these truths, providing us with a sense of belonging, validation, and a deeper sense of purpose within the broader tapestry of humanity.

5. Creating Connections and Building Bridges:
Literature and storytelling have the incredible power to connect people across time, culture, and space. It facilitates an exchange of ideas, experiences, and knowledge. Books generate shared experiences and foster dialogue among readers, opening doors to discussions that bridge gaps in understanding and unite diverse perspectives. This connection breaks down barriers and encourages empathy, making literature a catalyst for societal change and progress.

In a world often characterized by tumult and uncertainty, literature and storytelling act as beacons of enlightenment and understanding, offering profound insights that transform our perception of life. By exposing the multidimensional nature of the human experience, fostering empathy, and contemplating existential questions, literature adds depth and meaning to our lives. It enables us to explore our identities, connect with others, and appreciate the richness of the world we inhabit. Through literature, we uncover universal truths, build bridges between cultures and generations, and experience personal growth. It is through these timeless narratives that we discover the true potential of literature and storytelling to shape our understanding of life's complexities and to bring meaning to our existence.

Developing the persona of the main character in a story



Step-by-step instructions for developing the persona of the main character in a story:

1. Identify the purpose and genre of your story: Determine the type of story you want to write (e.g., romance, thriller, fantasy) and the intended audience. This will help you tailor the persona of the main character accordingly.

2. Define the main character's role in the story: Determine the main character's function within the plot. Are they the protagonist or the antagonist? What conflicts or challenges will they face? Understanding their role will guide the development of their persona.

3. Establish the main character's background: Create a backstory for the character, including details such as their upbringing, family, education, and any significant events that have shaped their personality and beliefs. This will add depth and authenticity to their persona.



Developing the persona of the main character in a story

4. Determine the main character's goals and motivations: Define what the main character wants to achieve or the objectives they're pursuing. Dig deeper to understand their underlying motivations and what drives them towards these goals.

5. Develop the main character's personality traits: Consider the main character's unique personality traits, both positive and negative. Are they compassionate, sarcastic, intelligent, or impulsive? These traits should be consistent throughout the story and reflect their background and role.

6. Create a physical description if necessary: If the main character's appearance is relevant, describe their physical attributes, such as height, hair color, or distinctive features. However, avoid excessive emphasis on physical appearance unless it actively contributes to the story.

7. Consider the main character's values and belief system: Explore the main character's values, beliefs, and moral code. How do these aspects influence their decisions and behavior? This will make their persona more authentic and relatable.






8. Determine the main character's strengths and weaknesses: Identify the main character's strengths that will help them overcome obstacles, as well as their weaknesses that may hinder their progress. Balancing these traits will create a dynamic and realistic persona.

9. Develop relationships and connections: Consider the main character's relationships with other characters in the story. How do these connections influence their persona? Determine their friendships, alliances, or rivalries, and how these interactions contribute to their character growth.

10. Allow for character growth and evolution: As the story progresses, allow the main character to develop and evolve based on their experiences and challenges. Their persona should change and adapt to reflect their growth throughout the narrative.

By following these steps, you will be able to develop a well-rounded and compelling persona for your main character that enhances the overall storytelling experience.

Metaphors in narratives speeches and storytelling


Using stunning metaphors in narratives, speeches, and storytelling can significantly enhance the impact and resonance of your work. Here are some secrets to successfully incorporate stunning metaphors:

1. Understand the Purpose: First, identify why you want to use metaphors in your piece. Is it to create vivid imagery, evoke emotions, or simplify complex ideas? Understanding the purpose will guide your selection and utilization of metaphors.

2. Know Your Audience: Tailor your metaphors to the interests, experiences, and cultural background of your audience. Consider what will resonate with them most and choose metaphors that will connect with their frame of reference.

3. Be Original: Aim for unique metaphors that haven't been overused or clichéd. This will make your writing or speech fresh and engaging. Experiment with combining unrelated concepts to create unexpected and thought-provoking metaphors.





4. Make it Relatable: Metaphors should be relatable and familiar to your audience. Draw from everyday life, experiences, and observations. Connecting the metaphor to something the audience knows well will help them better grasp your intended message.

5. Create Vivid Imagery: Use metaphors to paint a vivid picture in the minds of your audience. Make sure the metaphors are sensory, engaging different senses and evoking emotions. This will captivate your listeners or readers and keep them engaged.

6. Pay Attention to Context: Consider the context in which you are using metaphors. Ensure that they align with the overall theme or message you are conveying. Metaphors should flow seamlessly within your narrative or speech, supporting and enhancing the ideas being expressed.

7. Practice and Edit: Like any skill, using metaphors effectively requires practice. Experiment with different metaphors, and seek feedback from others to fine-tune your approach. As you edit your work, ensure that the metaphors are clear, concise, and purposeful.

8. Study the Masters: Read the works of renowned storytellers, poets, and speakers who excel in the use of metaphors. Analyze how they incorporate metaphors into their writing and observe the effect it has on their audience. This can provide inspiration and guidance for your own work.

Remember, the key to successfully using stunning metaphors lies in understanding the purpose, being original, creating relatability, and practicing your craft. With dedication and practice, you can master the art of utilizing metaphors to bring narratives, speeches, and storytelling to life.

Characteristics of a Boxing Match



Characteristics of a Boxing Match

This article discusses the difference between an exhibition and a professional boxing match. An exhibition boxing match is a sporting event between two professional boxers not fighting for a championship. There is no winner or loser at an exhibition boxing match-the only goal is for the fighter to make it through without being KOd. A professional boxing match usually contains three to eight rounds and can be either boxing or not.

A professional boxing match usually lasts nine to 12 rounds, while amateur matches often last only three. Boxing is a physically gruelling combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves and other protective equipment such as hand wraps and mouthguards, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. The goal of boxers (those fighting against another person) is to knock their opponent out (make their opponent unconscious) or to injure them so badly that their opponent cannot continue fighting. Boxing is a sport that involves strategically punching an opponent while defending yourself from an opponent's return punches. The out-boxer (out-fighter seeks to maintain a gap from The out-boxer (out-fighter opponent and fights with faster, longer-range punches. out-fighters are often regarded as the best boxing strategists due to their ability to control the pace of the fight and lead their opponent, methodically wearing their opponent down and exhibiting more skill and finesse than a brawler.



A boxing match


A concept boxing match is a sporting event which contains a match between two professional boxers. It is usually the last professional boxing match before they make their final amateur matches or move on to the next level. This exhibition fight typically lasts only three rounds, while the last amateur matches are nine to 12 rounds, and championship fights can last up to fifteen. The only goal of a concept boxing match is for each fighter to demonstrate their skills and prove themselves to be ready for the next step in their career.

Two people enter the boxing ring and face off against each other in a physically gruelling combat sport. The boxers will then throw punches to knock out their opponent or injure them enough to be declared the winner of the match. If one boxer can render their opponent unconscious, they are considered to have bested two people, as the mere notoriety of their opponent is seen as a win. To protect themselves from injury, boxers wear protective gloves, wraps and mouthguards. The hand wraps provide extra protection for the knuckles and support for the wrist and hand muscles during a fight.

A boxing match is a test of physical and mental endurance, with both fighters being matched against each other to determine the better boxer. Fight longer-range punches, and return punches with equal or greater force than your opponent.

Winning a boxing match takes more than just strength and power; the best boxing strategists use their boxers’ speed, agility, endurance, and technique to gain the upper hand. Fighters must use their boxers’ abilities to out-duel their opponent. This means they must be able to punch their opponent accurately while handling their own boxer’s movements and counter-punches. The fighter who exhibits superior movement over his opponent by exhibiting more skill and finesse will usually be regarded as the better.

A concept boxing match is an alternative type of match used for both fitness and entertainment. It is a hybrid between traditional boxing matches and martial arts competitions, which uses the same conditioning, shadow boxing, and punching bag drills used in boxing to train fighters. Participating boxers are usually paired with bags or sparring partners to practice their technique. Training occurs in a gym or outdoors, where participants either shadow boxes or use punching bags to practice the moves they will use during their matches.

A boxing match is an event where two fighters, called prize fighters or called fighters, compete to win a match by either knocking out the opponent or scoring points based on punches, elbows and knockdowns. A referee runs the fight, enforces rules and decides who wins the match. Before a match, it’s essential to decide how many judges there will be; usually, up to three judges are used. During a boxing match, both fighters must conduct their boxing match within the limits of the enforced rules. The fighter who scores more points or inflicts more damage with punches and elbows throughout the rounds wins the match. People worldwide enjoy watching these matches as fans love to witness two athletes competing in this core sport.



Boxing Training


If one opponent knocks down his opponent and touches the body, he has lost the match. Similarly, if a fighter lands a finishing shot which causes his opponent to be knocked out, he has won the bout. After being knocked down, a boxer is supposed to stand up within ten seconds for a prompt standing count by the referee; if he does not get up in this time frame, he loses the contest. Punches must not slip and land on an opposing fighter’s body to win a round during a boxing match. A fighter will lose points if he fails to make contact with an opponent’s feet during the contest.

A fighter will also be disqualified if he intentionally hits his opponent’s head or eyes or attempts to thumb his opponent’s eyes. A fight usually ends when one of the fighters is knocked out or a referee stops the fight due to excessive violence. Intentional head butts are prohibited and can result in disqualification. In boxing matches, up-and-coming fighters often use eight rounds to determine the victor. Throwing rabbit punches is not allowed and can result in points being removed from a fighter’s scorecard. Points are used for judging purposes at the end of each round, with 10 points awarded for winning each round and 9 points awarded for drawing.

 World boxing has seen various changes over the years; historically, it was known as prize fighting and even gambling and corruption scandals associated with it.

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and the Khudai Khidmatgar movement the British in India's northwest frontier province


Women praying


In 1929, the Khudai Khidmatgars movement (Servant of God) led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, agitated non-violently against the British in India's northwest frontier province. On April 26/27, 1947, the Zalmai Pukhtoon (Pashtun Youth) group, an organization composed of Pukhtoon youth armed with firearms, was formed to protect Khudai Khidmatgars (Servants of God) and members of the Congress party against the fear of violence by the Muslim League activists.

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and the Khudai Khidmatgar movement inspired thousands of Pashtuns (also called Pathans), known for being violent fighters, and others from the arms to use civilian resistance and challenge British rule. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan founded several reform movements before forming the Khudai Khidmatgar, Anjumen-e Islah ul-Afghan in 1921, the farmer organization Anjuman-e Zamidaran in 1927, and the youth movement Pashtun Jirga in 1927.

Ghaffar Khan was a Pashtun who enormously admired Mahatma Gandhi and his principles of non-violence and saw supporting the Indian National Congress as a means to express his discontent with the British border regime. Their leader advocated for independence, heavily influenced by Mahatma Gandhi's Satyagraha movement. Khan organized their social-political activities as the Khudai Khidmatgars or servants of God movement.

Unfortunately, their leader was arrested several times because they considered him to be an agent of the state of his country, and in 1948, the Khidmatgars movement was banned. Their leader was greatly distressed by the prospect of partitioning their favourite country, yet still pledged loyalty to the newly created nation of Pakistan. The Khudai Khidmatgar Movement supported the INC's successful elections in the new provincial government led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan's brother, Khan Sahib, who was to stay in power for the majority of time till the creation of Pakistan in 1947.



Mules on a mountain track


The Khudai Khidmatgars also won elections in 1946, allied with the Indian National Congress, with Dr Khan Sahib being re-elected as chief minister. During his brother's two-year tenure as the Chief Minister, major reforms were introduced by the Congress Party, including land reforms, the promotion of the teaching of Pashtu, and the release of political prisoners. On 12 August 1948, when Bacha Khan and deposed chief minister Dr. Khan Sahib were both in custody, more than 600 supporters of the Khudai Khidmatgars, protesting their release, were killed in the Babrra Massacre by the Government of Pakistan in the district of Charsadda.

Some Khudai Khidmatgars had attended a meeting of the Indian National Congress at Lahore in 1929 and asked its members to address their grievances. With a stoppage, Pakistan's founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, gave the ex-Congressman Abdul Qayyum Khan free rein in dealing with Congress and Khudai Khidmatgars.

The erstwhile ally set up the breakaway Muslim League, which proved unable to compete with Qayyum Khans. Its lowest ebb, and ultimate demise, came in the wake of the independence of Pakistan in 1947 when Muslim League chief minister Abdul Qayyum Khan banned the movement and launched a violent crackdown against its members, which culminated in the Naqshbandi Massacre.

The movement faced severe pressure from 1930 onwards, and the leadership, led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, was actively seeking political allies in India to help alleviate the pressure exerted by British authorities. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan did not want to contest elections for the provincial governor in India's northwest frontier province, as he was worried about the potential moral impact that political office would have on the movement. Faisal Khan said that the Khudai Khidmatgars would do the work in various parts of the country and called this programme the main step in reviving the Khudai Khidmatgars from November 2008, when a decision was taken for revival at the meeting in New Delhi.

Meherban Saha, chairman of Haji, is an old-time Khudai Khidmatgar of 80 years old. Meherban Saha, chairman of Haji, recalls, while talking with Mukulika Banerjee, Badshah Khan's words seemed to be amiable... agreeably talk to Pathan, he would do whatever. Dr Khans Sahib's son, Ghani Khan, criticised feudal landowners, which infuriated many HaniyaKhans and Nawabs, some formerly sympathetic to the movement. Khudai Khidmatgar was based primarily on two things, firstly, serving the human race through emphasising such things as education for all, encouraging poetry, music, and literature, and eliminating the virulent roots of violence among the Pashtoons.



A Muslim Women

The reason is evident, the Pakhtuns are following already established stereotypes; therefore, in this struggle, Khudai-Khidmatgar tried their best to remove the notion of deeply embedded stereotypes from Pashtoon society based on the reforms of society-culturally as well as the education networks. Non-violence became a basis for Khudai-Khidmatgar with the goal that Pashtoon society was already dominated by tribal feuds, as discussed before. So, to eradicate that curse from Pashtoon society and unify them on one platform. Faisal Khan, associated with the National Alliance of Peoples Movements, has also mentioned the necessity for such an organisation at this point where the vested interests are creeping into this area of social activities so that having an organisation which works without any hunger for earthly rewards becomes a necessity at this point of time.

Ayahs Indian Domestic Servants


Ayahs Indian Domestic Servant 2

Ayahs Indian Domestic Servants

Sweta Singh began the third panel with her presentation exploring ambivalence expressed toward the domestic servant in private and the public spheres of colonial India. Swapna Banerjees presentation focused particularly on the role of domestic male servants in colonial India. The lecture was a part of a European Research Council-funded project, The History of Domestic Servants in Colonial India, ERC-STG DOS, 640627.

By exploring the historical experiences and cultural memories of ayahs and amahs, the project seeks to shed light on broader trans-colonial histories of domestic labour. Scholarship of historical forms of domestic employment is now exploring its international patterns, of which the home Ayahs played a role. As a social historian whose work has focused on the migrant labourers in colonial India, I set out to untangle the histories of Indian women domestic workers as they travelled to Australia, either directly or through Britain, and to other British colonies during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Etymologically, the ayah is a recent import into Indian history, which gained currency when British officials began to establish themselves in India during the latter part of the nineteenth century. First emerging in India as a distinct group of occupations following the arrival of English wives in the late eighteenth century, ayahs replaced the male servants from the pre-colonial period starting from the late 1830s, becoming a significant base for childcare jobs for British Indians in the Raj. The Ayahs functioned not only as caretakers and surrogate mothers to the British children in India but also employed themselves to look after children while European/British families were transiting to England and back.

The ayahs also crossed murky waters (kalapani) to earn their livelihood as either indentured servants, women servants, or shipboard caretakers. Despite a dearth of evidence of about 100 Ayahs, they are known to have been generally older women, used to the care-taking duties, and were able to adapt both in the English and Indian worlds. The ayahs could be defined as the marginalised insiders and the intimate others within Anglo-Indian homes since ayahs provided the more intimate labour and were intimate with their employer's private lives.

In other cases, ayahs used their agency in situations where they travelled overseas with their employers, bringing complaints against their European employers, as was the case with Thomasee and eighteen other servants who served the Browne family in New South Wales, Australia (1818). As members of an Indian community in close proximity to the Europeans, the earliest ayahs were aggressive money earners, often challenging, disrupting, and undermining their Western employers.

The employment of the ayahs and other Indian servants was the primary marker of the racial, gender, cultural, and class differences between colonizers and the colonized. Indian ayahs lived and worked in British colonial homes as babysitters, housekeepers, nurses, and, on occasion, wet nurses, helping British families to prosper in an isolated setting. The Home for the Ayahs, London, provided housing to Indian and Chinese amahs (nannies) in the early twentieth century who had been mistreated, dismissed from their services, or were simply abandoned without any means to return home.

The ayahs would accompany British families home to the UK, whether it was on a seasonal journey to escape Indian summers or when a colonial official retired. The number of accompanied journeys was reduced by 4,500 miles following the opening of the Suez canal in 1869, resulting in as many as 140 travelling ayahs visiting Britain each year, accompanied by their employed families, the memsahibs (ladies-in-waiting) and children.

Many women who travelled to Australia, argues historian Samia Khatun, came as housemaids: the ayahs would accompany their white employers from Indian ports to Australian ports and interior cities. Hailing primarily from lower-caste groups like the Bagdi and the Jalia Kabarta, poor, powerless women, many poor young widows, worked as full-time ayahs, wet nurses, or domestic servants for wealthy Aboriginal and British families.

Ayah, a term that owes its genesis to the Portuguese cognate aia (Spanish: aya; Italian: aja; and Latin: avia, meaning grandmother), Ayahs were the indigenous female nurses, female caretakers for children, particularly in European families in India. In modern India, ayah is a widespread term that refers to women who are the caretakers of children and the elderly at hospitals and homes. These earlier associations help to explain the usage of ayah derived from its Portuguese cognate, aia (meaning mother, mentor, ward), to designate women's caretakers in Anglo-Indian households.

Nitin Sinha briefly mentioned her research focus, namely, the history of female servants in India during the late 18th century and the early 19th century. First, he stressed the importance of a long history of domestic labour regulations, which, he suggested, can serve as a starting point for a historical study of servants and services.

Focusing on the colonial period, Salma Vazis thesis, which draws from literary sources, sought to recover the domestic male servant's intimate labour that was constituent to their masculinity and that of their employers. Laura Wilks contends that the domestic servants (the women commuting workers in her case study) valued both the intimate relationship with the employers and the independence that contractual wage labour involved.

Among the evidence given by Ms Dunne, and also recorded in the correspondence between Ayah's home and the Indian Ministry, was the account of one ayah brought to Britain from Bombay by a British woman in 1908, who, as was customary, released her to Thomas Cook and Son to move her work to Thomas Cook and Son.

Cited Sources

Physical Geography NW India Pakistan Terrain Weather Landscape


NW India Pakistan |  Terrain | Weather | Landscape

The northern region has five of the seventeen highest summits in the world, together with high mountain ranges in the Karakoram and Himalayas. Although South Asia’s Himalayas are known to possess the highest peaks, the Karakoram range, which passes through Pakistan, India, China, and Afghanistan, has the highest concentration of peaks over 8,800 metres (26,000 feet). The Himalayas are home to the tallest mountains in the world, providing a natural barrier to the coldest polar winds.    

The many rivers from these mountains supply water for the rich Indus-Gangetic Plain. Several significant regions include the large mountains to the north; the Thar Desert in the northwest; the Indo-Gangetic plain, characterised by the three major rivers (the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmaputra); the Peninsular Plateau, divided by the Central Highlands, scattered by shallow valleys and round hills; and the coastal plain, which is the seat of a large number of smaller rivers. India is separated from the rest of Asia by mountain ranges, forests, and deserts--the Himalayan ranges to the north, the Thar Desert to the west, and the Chin Hills and Patkai Range to the east.    




India shares borders with Pakistan in the northwest, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north, and Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east. India borders Pakistan in the east, Afghanistan to the northwest, and Iran in the west, while China borders Pakistan to its northeast. The states and territories of the Far North East are almost separated from the rest of India by Bangladesh, with Bangladesh stretching northwards out of the Bay of Bengal to Bhutan.   

The state of Jammu and Kashmir is claimed by India but is disputed by Pakistan and China, which govern parts of the territory. The disputed regions are Gilgit-Baltistan to the north, and Azad Kashmir, the territory nominally autonomous west of the new state. Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost part of India; their capital is Srinagar (in summer) and Jammu (in winter). At the withdrawal time, Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of the hilly region Kashmir, preferred independence and maintaining neutrality between successor states to a new state and Pakistan (mostly Muslims). Pakistan holds the northern parts of Kashmir.

Map showing the mountains of Kashmir, a region in the northwest part of the Indian Subcontinent, the most northerly geographic region in South Asia. The area lies where the Indian tectonic plates meet the Eurasian plate—the mountains of Kashmir The Indian tectonic plates. The Satpura range runs parallel to the Vindhya range, which lies north, while the Himalayas separate northern India's Indo-Gangetic Plains from the Deccan Plateau, which lies to the south. The Indo-Gangetic Plain runs parallel to the Himalayas, from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east, draining Punjab, Haryana, Eastern Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal.

South of the northern plateaus and west of the Indus river plain are the Saffied Koh ranges along the border, and the Suleiman Range and the Kirthar Range, defining the western edge of the province of Sindh, reaching nearly as far as the southern coastline. Roughly speaking; therefore, the northern highlands are to the north of an imaginary East-West Line; the Baluchistan plateau is west of an imaginary South-West Line; and the Indus River plain lies to the east of this Line. For instance, mountain ranges along the west Afghan frontier are sometimes described separately from the Balochistan Plateau. In contrast, along the east Indian frontier, south of the Sutlej river, the Thar Desert can be considered independent from the Indus plain.   

The landscape ranges greatly, from Indus plains and deserts, forest hills, and plateaus, to rugged mountains with glaciers. The eastern Ghats range from West Bengal in the north, across Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, and into Tamil Nadu in the south. Cultivation is poor in the northern mountains, southern deserts, and the western plateaus. Still, the plains of the Indus river are rich soils, which have allowed Pakistan to support its population in average climate conditions.    

India receives over 80 per cent of India’s annual rains from monsoons, and monsoon rainfall is necessary for both subsistence and commercial farming in South Asia. About once every summer, the rains move northwards into Indian/Nepalese foothills for a week or two, leaving the rest of India dry. The summer months are pre-monsoon (although thunderstorms are experienced in northeastern and eastern parts of Bihar, Assam, and West Bengal, the wind is hot in north-western Indian plains, and the wind is hot and dry.)

For instance, in late summer, when all snow has melted, the monsoon contribution is reduced, or the HKH central and eastern regions in times of drought. The glacial recession rates are influenced not just by temperature but by changes in rainfall associated with summer monsoons in east and central HKH and westerly winds during the winter season in the western Himalayas. For the populations downstream, the changes in floods due to monsoon rains and cyclones are likely to matter most, together with changes in the timing of extreme events.    




Parts of the South-Central Peninsula, including Bangalore, receive less than half of the monsoon rain observed farther north and west (although parts of the South-Central Peninsula receive nearly as much rainfall - only not as much, nor as long). A look at the maps and satellite images shows large tracts of the interior of Asia, Asia, that are mostly mountains and deserts. Pakistan has another five mountain ranges over 8000m/26,246ft, as well as over 100 ranges above 7000m/22,965ft.

Cited Sources


#mountain ranges     #afghanistan     #indus river     #monsoon rains     #himalaya mountains     #rainfall     #thar desert     #subcontinent     #sindh     #myanmar     

History of Montessori Early Childhood Education



Montessori Early Childhood Education


The history of early childhood education goes all the way back to 1500 and has definitely come a long way in recent years. Early childhood education has a very long and rich history, with valuable contributions by some of the greatest theorists of child development and education.

Several more amazing minds helped to form our education system and provide deeper insights into children's early learning. Friedrich Froebel is another one that gets much of the credit for his contributions to early education and childcare. He is considered the originator of daycare, but his beliefs about how younger children should be taught have influenced even the modern-day classroom.

Although my dad was only eighteen at the time - one year older than most people who graduated from high school - he started with high school and did not stop until after his graduation from Atlantas Morehouse College. I went through the public schools in Atlanta for a while, then went to what was known as Atlanta University Lab High School for two years.

An only child, it was afforded every facility any student would hope to have in a middle school and a university. She was sent to the best schools and colleges available and generally protected from the worst ills of discrimination. Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessoris initial record at the school is not particularly remarkable. However, in 1st grade she was awarded certificates of good behaviour, and in the following year for her lavori donneschi, or womens labour.

During her two years in school, Montessori developed methods and materials that she would later adapt for use with regular children. Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori came to view independence as an educational goal, with the teacher acting as a supervisor and guide of children's natural psychological development. In 1899, Montessori was appointed as an advisor in the newly formed National League to Protect the Rights of the Incarcerated and was invited to give lectures at the Teachers Training School at the Universita Cattolica degli Studi di Roma about the specific methods of education of intellectually disabled children.

In her classes, Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori observed behaviours in these small children that formed the basis for her teaching methods. The Montessori method was to see children as sources of knowledge, while the teacher, or educator, was a social engineer. Further based on this concept, Maria Montessori (1870-1952) saw children as sources of knowledge, with the educator as the social engineer.

Montessori and Waldorf are both approaches that may continue far past early childhood levels into secondary education. In Montessori, children are exposed to a humanitarian, socially responsible, and compassionate way of approaching the world.

In a Montessori classroom, the emphasis is on the child's interaction with materials, with the teacher as a facilitator, in contrast to most traditional classrooms, where the emphasis is on the child's interaction with the teacher. There are no standardized tests, and learning is demonstrated by projects that the child explores, which are documented by the educator. Instead of being taught, teachers guide children toward materials and activities suited for that child.

Typically, an educator who works with a single cohort of children will remain with the same cohort as he or she grows older and moves up from grade to grade.

The children learn their work is valuable and essential, and teachers develop a stronger connection with their students and become more familiar with them. Over the years, education has become more formalized, these things have been introduced to the classroom.

Clarence S. Marsh, the education director at CCC, compared the program to the Great American Folk School (Tyack, p. 121). By 1930, the bill had topped $29 million, and nearly 4.5 million children in 14,000 schools had participated in the program.

During World War II (1939-1945), the last New Deal programs related to education were eliminated. It was only during the Depression economic crisis that the government entered the schoolhouse arena via the New Deal programs.

Through various government programs from 1933 to 1939, such as the Public Works Administration (PWA) and WPA, the New Deal was behind 70% of all school building projects. In addition to creating jobs-relief programs to build public buildings, including schools, the WPA had an emergency education program. Public financing for schools was one of the most significant changes to public education in the 1930s.

After suffering in the first years of the Depression, from 1935, the post office enjoyed a steady increase in revenues, in part because of the economic policies of the New Deal.

New Dealers began developing programs to assist students who had dropped out of school and those still in mainstream schools. Some educators believed health services were precisely the programs needed in the 1930s, when a growing number of students from poor families were staying in schools. Focused on younger children, the Emergency Education Program offered daycare to children of poor families and parenting classes to their parents.

The Montessori Method allowed children to develop at their own pace and provided educators with new insights into children's development. The Montessori Method is a way of education for young children which emphasizes developing the children's initiative and natural abilities, particularly through hands-on activities. Maria Montessori (1870-1952) considered education to be the means by which a child's life is improved, meaning the environment in which one studies is just as important as learning itself.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952) took the stance that the child's senses must be taught first, followed by the child's intellect later. Building upon this idea, the next person who contributed to early education was John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), who firmly believed that learning for children was rooted in sensate exploration.

By 1929, Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore had established a number of Montessori schools Tagore-Montessori schools throughout India, and Indian interests in Montessori education were well represented in an international congress held in 1929. In 1929, the first International Montessori Congress was held at Elsinore, Denmark, concurrently with the fifth conference of the Fellowship for a New Education.

If President Roosevelt needed counsel about educational issues, he turned to college presidents, professors from The New School, individuals in his staff with experience in social work, and to his wife and friends. Because Montessori was such a particular style, there was even a governing body for Montessori schools and educators by which they were supposed to receive certification. Generally speaking, theorists in early education would all want to see a shared objective achieved: the success of children's primary years.

Cited Sources